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And the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for aircraft rescue and fire fighting training system for the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) since the late 1970s began to study, and developed in design and manufacturing, training and certification of aircraft rescue simulation training device corresponding Standards and regulations have accumulated a relatively scientific and comprehensive theoretical basis. However, the research on the civil aviation aircraft fire control standard system is only at the initial stage, and the research on aircraft disaster response methods is basically blank. It is not uncommon for aircraft to crash outside the airport. Rescue of flight disaster accidents is not only the task of the airport fire department, but also the problem that the public security fire forces have to face. Only by strengthening the multiple forms of fire fighting teams to cope with the accidents of air crashes. Technical and tactical training and training can improve our aviation accident rescue support capabilities.

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A Comparison of China and U.S. Aircraft Emergency Firefighting and Rescue Standard System

( I ) The United States Fire Safety Related Standards System

The United States Fire Protection Standardization Administration is responsible for the United States Fire Protection Association, which consists of 28 technical committees and 16 technical committees to provide support for technical and tactical standards. The Aircraft Rescue and Extinguishing Technology Committee is responsible for the research and publication of standards related to aircraft rescue and firefighting. There are 374 current standards of the American Fire Protection Association , including about 56 standards for management and application, and 65 standards for rescue and search by the American Society of Materials and Testing , of which 43 are standard for management and application . Provided 99 firefighters with technical and tactical guidance . Based on this huge standard system, the American Fire Protection Association’s Aircraft Rescue and Extinguishing Technology Committee also issued Guidelines for Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting, Standards for Airport Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Equipment, Airport Fire Fighter Rotating Standards, and Airport Rescue. The standards of the Foam Fire Fighting Device Assessment Standard, Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Vehicle Standard, Airport Emergency Response Planning Guide, and Airport Professional Qualification Standard for Firefighters are seven professional standards documents that provide national-level standard support for responding to aircraft accidents.

The Federal Aviation Administration of the United States has further elaborated the standards system in accordance with relevant standards and requirements of US Federal Regulations Part 139 and NFPA and issued the "Aircraft Fire Protection and Rescue Water Supply System", "Aircraft Fire Fighting Rescue Facility and Fire Extinguishing Agent" and "Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Communication". , “Guidelines for Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Vehicles”, “Responsibility of Fire Departments for Evidence Protection in Aircraft Accidents”, “Water Rescue Plans, Facilities and Equipment”, “Airport Fire Rescue Workers Protective Clothing”, and “Design Standards for Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Training Facilities” "," "airport emergency plan" and many other advisory notices.

American firefighter

( II ) China's fire safety related standards system

China's fire protection standardization management is under the responsibility of the National Fire Protection Standardization Technical Committee. There are 14 sub-committee committees. The first-level technical committee ( fire-fighting and rescue sub-committee ) is responsible for fire-fighting tactics, plan, emergency rescue, fire station construction and equipment equipping. The establishment of standards such as team management, but did not involve standard research on aircraft rescue and firefighting. As of 2013 , there are a total of 30 GA and GB standards related to fire rescue operations in China , and the number of fire protection product standards is generally the only ones in management and application categories are “Dangerous Chemicals Leakage Action Requirements” and “Firefighters' Personal Protective Equipment Standards”. "General Rules," "Technical Training Guide," "Training Facility Requirements," "Equipment Deployment Guide," and "Operational Procedures," and other standards.

The standards for rescue and firefighting in China's civil aviation are only regulatory standards such as the "Administrative Rules for Civil Transport Emergency Response to Airport Accidents" and "Firefighting Equipment for Civil Aviation Transport Fire Stations," and there are no guiding standards.

Chinese firefighters

( III ) Comparative Analysis of Differences

Through the comparison of China-US fire protection standards system, it is not difficult to see that China and the United States have significant differences in aircraft firefighting and rescue capabilities. The key issue is the lack of relevant standards. Although China has initially established a standard system and basic framework for fire emergency rescue, it still cannot meet actual needs and cannot provide scientific and efficient operational standard support for airport fire departments and public security fire units involved in aircraft accident rescue.

Second, China and the United States engaged in aircraft fire rescue personnel job ability investigation

( A ) Eight aspects

China's airport firefighters have lower barriers to entry. They only require age, physical quality, and academic qualifications. The sources of personnel are mostly graduates and retired city firefighters. They are limited by the knowledge structure, ability and quality, and military service system. Staff lacks actual experience. And the accumulation of relevant theoretical knowledge.

In the United States, if you want to become an airport firefighter, you must pass the qualification certification of a city firefighter first, through the systematic study and assessment of a professional fire school, and cover theoretical knowledge, equipment operations, and actual fire fighting skills, and have at least five years of urban firefighting. After actual fire fighting and rescue experience, they are eligible to apply for airport firefighters.

( two ) professional knowledge

China lacks a theoretical knowledge system for aircraft rescue and firefighting. It is based on the theoretical knowledge of urban firefighting and rescue. Urban firefighting rescue knowledge and tactical strategies cannot meet the needs of aircraft firefighting and rescue.

Prior to taking office, US airport firefighters must have knowledge of aircraft rescue and fire fighting, and in accordance with established rules, perform tasks safely and accurately independently and ensure compliance with the standards.

( III ) Skills

The relevant training and training for airport firefighters in China is based on the skills training of public security fire fighting. They are targeted and practical and are limited to water laying, simple personal protection and physical training, and they are caught in the cycle of low-level training cycles. The public security firefighters did not undergo comprehensive professional aircraft rescue skills training.

Before taking office, American airport firefighters must meet the requirements of the Fire Service Professional Qualification Standard and the Qualification Standard for Fire Engine Pilot and Equipment Operator Qualification Standards. On this basis, they must also meet the qualifications of the airport firefighters. Standard Skill Requirements."

( four ) attitude

China's public security firefighters have high social awareness, but the limitations of the recipient system and the bottleneck of professional development have greatly reduced attitudes. Most of the airport firefighters are staffed by corporate full-time teams, and their social awareness is low. Even in the eyes of public security active firefighters, they are all inferior to others. Just as the fire and explosion accident at Tianjin Port, Premier Li Keqiang once said, “The hero is not supernumerary,” although he sacrificed for his full-time firefighting. The name of the staff is correct, but it also reveals the long-time neglect of full-time firefighters. In this environment, the professional dedication and sense of honor of full-time firefighters are greatly reduced. Both the public security firefighters and the full-time firefighters cannot escape the quagmire with high turnover rates and are not conducive to the accumulation of knowledge, skills, and experience.

American firefighters have a very high social status, are recognized and respected by society, and are prepared for civil servants. They have high welfare benefits and a small turnover rate. The long-term work practice and training have continuously improved the overall quality of employees, especially airport firefighters are considered to be the elite of firefighters. In this environment, the enthusiasm of the airport firefighters is inspired.

( V ) Survey conclusion

China's fire safety authorities, such as the Fire Bureau, Fire Protection Association, and Fire School of the Ministry of Public Security, have not established the corresponding standards for airport firefighters at the national level due to the independent operation of the civil aviation system , and they also lack theoretical research on aircraft fire rescue, while the Civil Aviation Administration of China Nor have they published standards or advisory notices for airport firefighters' qualification requirements and clear theoretical support. This leads to disaster response to aircraft accident rescue words of knowledge and skill requirements are not uniform, the method is not clear, for lack of scientific training l training.

Third, improve the aircraft fire rescue ability

In summary, it is not difficult to find the gap between China and the United States. From the perspective of respecting life, we must take action to eliminate the gap and increase China’s comprehensive support capabilities for aircraft emergencies.

( I ) Perfecting the Standard System Construction

Drawing on the US standardization system, we will promote the construction and improvement of China's standardization bodies, establish the China Fire Protection Association’s Aircraft Rescue and Fire Protection Committee as soon as possible, formulate and publish national-level regulatory standards and professional qualification certification standards, standardize rescue procedures and methods, and guide firefighting practices. The personnel improved the aircraft's disaster recovery ability.

( B ) Improve rescue personnel's ability and quality

Collect and transform internationally existing research results and training methods, formulate training programs and assessment standards that are suitable for China's national conditions, and be scientific and effective, and implement intensive training to improve the rescue level of China's firefighters.

1 . Improve training plan

Firefighters in China are more focused on the training of theory, regulations, plans, and common sense. The theory and common sense part is more for building fire protection than for aircraft accident rescue.

The training system for American airport firefighters started early and is relatively complete. The relevant training is implemented in accordance with the relevant standards of ICA0 , NFPA and FAA . The training content is a combination of professional theory and practical operation, and covers the contents of building fire protection. We can directly learn from the United States FAA aircraft 12 major items of rescue firefighter training l planned and 100 training children, to supplement and improve our training content, implementation including airports and aircraft are familiar, personal security, emergency communications, water jetting use of the appliance, fire fighting Of 11 international general training requirements including agent selection, emergency evacuation, construction firefighting skills, general rescue equipment applications, dangerous goods disposal, emergency command and responsibility , and increase all-weather all-terrain driving training, special situation response, water or high rescue, Additional training in low-visibility operations, military aircraft weapon systems, ballistics and escape systems, and medical emergencies to meet the increasingly complex needs of emergency rescue aircraft.

2 . Real fire training

The lack of real fire training is deadly, and it is very easy for firefighters to fight in fear and even retreat. Even with the courage to enter the fire, there is a greater risk and risk of casualties. Although domestic firefighters have conducted different levels of actual fire training, there is still lack of combustion intensity and scenario construction. We can use regular inspections of fire-fighting agents such as foams, chemical dry powders, and halogenated alkanes to conduct monthly training on firefighter release methods for emergency personnel under real fire conditions so that trainees can intuitively evaluate the various types of equipment they are equipped with. The advantages and limitations of extinguishing agents while familiarizing themselves with the high temperature conditions they experience. Real fire training must include the use of hoses and water guns to save fires from simulated aircraft and to protect firefighters and on-board personnel.

3 . No aircraft fire rescue training base

China promulgated the "fire training base training facility construction standards" The main needs for the city fire training l training design, aircraft type training facilities are just a child, the child aircraft fire incident handling training area structure and function made recommendations only required should be provided aircraft simulation model, control equipment and auxiliary facilities, medium-sized aircraft to simulate fire, trapped personnel, etc., can carry out the rescue, rescue, fire fighting and rescue and other technical and tactical training l training and practical exercise training area The floor area should not be less than 200 square meters . The passenger aircraft simulation model should refer to the construction of medium-sized passenger aircraft with a size of more than 100 passengers. The standard content is too general and lacks mandatory and guidance.

The standards of Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Training I Facilities promulgated by the FAA in the United States provide clear guidelines and specifications for the design, construction, and operation of aircraft rescue firefighting training facilities. The standard requires that an empty-space mock-up model can present the complex conditions encountered during actual fires inside and outside of a variety of aircraft, as well as a realistic aircraft accident fire environment, the size of which is a parameter of typical aircraft operated by the airport. The site should meet the needs of airport fire fighting vehicles when they approach the burning zone and need to deploy hoses to extinguish the fire. We can directly learn from this standard in the country zoned areas, the construction of airports in all major aircraft fire rescue training l training base, simulation of complex situations that may be encountered and realistic aircraft fire accident environment, meet airport firefighters and police near the airport area The needs of the fire brigade to extinguish training and avoid inefficient repeated input or even invalid input.

Through the study of the US standards for aircraft rescue and firefighting, it can be seen that the lack of standards and guidance documents for aircraft rescue and firefighting is the key to constraining China’s ability to respond to aircraft disaster accidents, and the qualifications of firefighters Lack of competence and training is a problem that we urgently need to solve. Only by constantly improving our country’s standard system, we will gradually eliminate the shortcomings of China’s multi-form fire brigade in responding to aircraft emergency rescue capabilities, training systems, fire training, and fire management. The training will determine the core of aircraft rescue success or failure. Starting from the factors, benchmarking advanced, we will strive to reduce the gap between the developed countries and Europe and the United States in the rescue of aircraft accidents, and realize the comprehensive improvement of comprehensive fire rescue support capabilities as soon as possible so as to implement scientific and efficient rescue in the event of an aircraft emergency and maximize rescue. life.

This data from the "China Civil Aviation", author: Zhang Xianghui.

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